Overview of the Ruby on Rails programming language

RoR is a free framework required for developing applications that are based on the MVC (Model-View-Controller) architecture and are based on Ruby. The main goal is to simplify the development of web applications and their creation in a small amount of code than in other frameworks, with a minimum configuration. Ruby’s metaprogramming does just that.

The main principles of Ruby on Rails are avoiding configuration, introducing common conventions where possible, and avoiding repetitive code that carries the same meaning. The components of Ruby on Rails are integrated in such a way that now the programmer does not have to write the descriptors that are necessary to communicate with each other or repeat the definitions that are in the program code in the relational database.

The Ruby on Rails framework itself and its additional extensions are distributed through a system such as Ruby Gems, which standardizes distribution channels and package formats.

Model

The Ruby on Rails model classes are based on Active Record libraries that implement an object-relational view of the data stored in the database. Active Record has:

  • Reflection of associations, columns, aggregations
  • hereditary hierarchy
  • Auto reflection between tables and classes, columns and attributes
  • Transactional support at the database level and at the object representation level
  • Object field validation rules
  • The ability to represent records as trees or lists
  • Object aggregation
  • The ability to specify actions that are performed at different stages of an object’s life both in a separate class and in the model itself
  • Abstracting from a specific DBMS. Support for PostreSQL, MySQL, DB2, SQLServer, Oracle
  • By inheriting a class from the ActiveRecord::Base class, which automatically shows a table with a name that matches the name of the class you created
  • Relation of objects supported by has_one, has_many, belong_to macros

View

To display the user interface in Ruby on Rails, there is a class called Action View that implements an advanced templating system, much like JavaScript, where Ruby language instructions are placed inside tags such as <%=%> or <%%>. There is also a render function (template display), which is used both inside the template and serves to show the sub-template, and inside the controller.

Controller

The user-interacting classes in Ruby on Rails are built on the principle of the ActionController classes. This defines the methods available by URL through the web. A default view template is associated with each method. This class defines various helper methods that are needed to manage aspects that interact with the user and generate code that is often used. For example, when working with a database for CRUD (Create-Remove-Update-Delete) operations.

Some Nice Ruby on Rails Development Tools

Testing:

The development of any project always implies some questions under the most. Who will test the project and how? There is not always a desire and funds to create entire huge testing departments, besides, there is a reason to do this automatically. Compared to other frameworks, Ruby on Rails has excellent automated testing tools. Other frameworks and programming languages ​​without testing at all. There are, of course, some third-party developments that allow you to organize testing of a project in PHP in this form, but they cannot be installed out of the box, so their use is reduced to zero. In a RoR project, the project code is written until tests are written for this code. Ruby on Rails ideology involves the initial use of completely unique methods of Behavior Driven Development (BDD) or Test Driven Development (TDD).

Caching:

Caching is one of the most important stages in the development of a large project on the Internet. There are different caching tools in the PHP programming language. Such tools and options are attached, screwed, attached, attached to the side. Until today, there is no consensus in the PHP community about what is better to use, what tools to use, how to cache data better.

Ruby on Rails comes standard with standard data caching facilities. At the initial stage, tools are proposed that allow you to implement caching on the project. Using them, you can cache blocks of code or entire pages. You can also cache the results of ActiveRecord model queries. There are several caching options, such as with memcached. To implement caching on Ruby on Rails, in 95% of cases you will not need anything other than regular and ready-made solutions.

Localization:

Often there is such a situation that someone has developed a project, and then realizes that without the English version, the development of the project will simply fall into place. At the same time, PHP developers start talking about the fact that this was not foreseen in advance, since it is extremely laborious and takes a long time. There is a proposal to open along with this a new project, which is a copy of this project, but with a translation.

Ruby on Rails comes with tools that allow you to localize your project. Both at the beginning and at the end of the project, you can provide language support on the site. Ruby on Rails has the ability to distribute templates for various languages, also contains configuration files with translations of important terms, and other tools needed to localize a project.

Routing (CNC or pretty urls)

Quite often, in many projects written in PHP, you can see a picture in which the address of a particular page is incomprehensible and huge. In RoR, there is the possibility of flexible routing settings, the names of the main sections, the type of addresses. You can easily change the addresses in any one place, which will allow you to change the address in the entire project. The RoR development community often uses an ideology called REST. URLs of pages developed on Ruby on Rails are always beautiful, understandable, simple and well understood by search engines.

Validations:

RoR has very well implemented tools that allow you to validate incoming data. Users on your site fill out forms and you need to check whether they entered the correct email address, the minimum length of the login and the presence of a password. The regular Ruby on Rails tools will help you with this.

Migrations and working with the database:

In most cases, the problem of many projects that are developed in PHP is the impossibility of tools and means to control the structure of the database. Often, changes are made to the structure manually and directly to the database. In this regard, it is not uncommon for various incomprehensible tables and fields to appear, which have long gone into the background. RoR has standard tools and tools for working with the database – “migrations”. The database structure is stored in the web application code and loads the configuration directly from the project. Your structure will always be in the repository, each structure change will be sent to a special document and tied to a specific commit to the repository.

Security:

By default, RoR projects are quite sharpened in terms of security. XSS attacks as well as SQL injections are excluded when using Ruby on Rails tools and tools. All parameters are displayed by default. If you don’t specify the reverse option, then variables that appear in templates will also be escaped. Developers simply will not be able to make mistakes that threaten the security of the project (of course, not without exceptions).

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